Do beautiful girls defecate?

Answered Jan 14, 2020

No, absolutely not.

All women are beautiful, so this applies to all women.

Every human (male or female) has gut flora. Which is a population of bacteria in the intestines. They help you to digest your food.

However, female gut bacteria are extremely efficient. They break down food entirely into odourless carbon dioxide and water. They can even do this with nitrogen and sulfur containing foods.

By the time the ingested food has reached the colon, there are no solids left.

The odourless carbon dioxide and water vapor are exhaled, and nobody notices.

In this way, females simply don’t need to defecate. And also don’t need to fart.

It’s all about biological science.

Are viruses living or non-living organisms?

Answered Dec 30, 2019

The hassle is in the question itself.

I don’t worry about calling them in some definition of “living or non-living”. I would just call them a biological unit.

A virus is a virus. That has a clear definition of being a parasite that needs another cell for machinery to replicate itself. They need to get inside a host cell, to use transcription and translation structures that the host possess.

A virus is a unit that contains genetic instructions to, with the needed resources, make copies of itself. This basic concept is what started “life”, and is the mission of all “life” forms, up to humans.

If you formally study microbiology, then you would put things into categories. Bacteria, archaea, yeast, and viruses.

The smallest, simplest thing is called “naked DNA”, which is just a chain of nucleotides. And even that can be used to make copies.

The most abundant biological unit on Earth is bacteriophages. Which is a class of viruses that infect bacteria, to make copies of themselves. A handful of ocean water can contain more phage units than the total number of humans that have ever existed.

“Life”, including obviously “living” species, is intertwined with viruses. There is a theory that, the three domains of “life” – Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya were branched off when LUCA (Last Universal Common Ancestor) had different cell lines infected by bacteriophage viruses.

There are viruses that splice themselves into the host genome. This ranges from Phage Lambda, up to retroviruses, with their information still in human chromosomes.

Viruses may seem like annoying, dead, trashy parasites. But, they live within us, and possibly helped create us.

How can we make bacteria that metabolize waste plastic?

Answered Jul 31, 2019

You wouldn’t necessarily “make” microbes that can do this.

There is at least one species of fungus that can break down certain types of plastic to use for food.

However, there are various problems. Some of which are biological, and some are physical.

The “plastic-eating fungus” uses enzymes called esterases, which will only work on certain classes of polymers that are structured a certain way.

Also, a chunk of plastic will only be vulnerable to reactions on its surface, which might take a long time to eat all the way through. Plus, if I recall correctly, there is a physics thing called “water activity”, which is necessary for the enzymes to work, but is going on at very low levels on the surface of the plastic (even with the fungus and/or enzymes present).

Attempting to insert the enzyme gene into bacteria for mass production has various biological problems, including protein folding, toxicity to the bacteria, etc.

Does the increase in medical technological ability match the rate of antibiotic resistance?

Answered Jul 29, 2019

Not exactly.

Increased medical technology (in this case, new antibiotics and wider distribution of them) actually pressures the development of antibiotic resistance by bacteria.

When you make a better drug, evolution responds by finding ways to resist it.

Do viruses compete with each other?

Answered Jul 27, 2019


They can even compete with members of their same species.

Some bacteriophages (viruses which infect bacteria) will do this. The first copy to successfully infect an individual host may have a mechanism that prevents any further copies of that same phage species from being able to infect the same cell.

It should be noted that, different copies of the same virus species may have genetic mutations which make them different to each other. When they infect the host, the basic drive is to create and disseminate copies of their specific genome. This means that, preventing super-infection by competing strains allows the first strain to use all of the host resources for itself, thereby giving a competitive advantage.

What is the sequence of energy utilization from protein, lipids, carbohydrates, which comes first, second and third for providing energy for our body?

Answered Oct 26

The first option is to burn glucose, because it is the least complex, and more direct.

If you run short on glucose, you have a store of glycogen in your liver and muscles. Glycogen is made of linked glucose monomers, which can be separated and burned.

You would also use other sugars, such as lactose, which take a bit more energy input to do.

Next, you would burn lipids. These are disassembled into 2-carbon units.

Last, you would start burning proteins. This may be a bad thing, for a couple of reasons. You need to get rid of the excess nitrogen, which takes resources. And, ultimately, you would start cannibalising things like your muscle tissue. In a starvation scenario, your body would be simultaneously burning tissue proteins, and using those carbon skeletons to manufacture glucose to send to the brain, which can only use glucose.

What elements differentiate the amino acids of a protein from the sugars of a carbohydrate?

Answered Oct 25

Carbohydrates and lipids are all CHO, which includes Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen. These can be in different proportions, depending on the specific molecule.

Amino acids, by definition, have an amine group, which includes a Nitrogen. They all have an N on their backbone, and some have an N on the side chain. Cysteine and Methionine have a Sulfur on the side chain.

A few enzymes use an amino acid with Selenium instead of Sulfur.

Can the DNA remain in a girl after an abortion?

Answered Oct 25

Yes. It is called fetal microchimerism.

Material from the foetus can pass through the placenta, into the mother. This can result in ongoing cell lines which are based on that foetus, with a genome based on both parents, so different to the mother’s own genome. These cell lines can persist for the rest of the woman’s life.

No, you cannot grow a new foetus from these cells.

How do astronauts survive without sex for so long?

Answered Aug 21

OK, here’s how it works.

First, it’s only a problem for the male astronauts. Research based on males between the ages of 13 and 25 shows that, a lack of sex causes a medically dangerous buildup of pressurised semen in the testicles.

So, on the space station, they have a periodic health and safety routine to alleviate this.

Basically, they open the door, and allow all the air to escape, so the entire station depressurises. The vacuum of space then pulls all of the accumulated semen from the astronauts, in one big spooge, thus relieving their painful internal pressure. Then, they close the door and fill the station with air again.

They do this about every three or four months or so.

There have been long-standing but never confirmed rumours that the old Soviet space program’s Mir station didn’t have this procedure, and that a crew member suffered a fatal explosion due to the chronic lack of sexual release.

It’s amazing what you can learn when you ask questions of random strangers on Quora, isn’t it?

To what extent does nature select for simplicity?

Updated Aug 11

Selection tends to be a numerical issue. It is largely about who survives their environment long enough to reproduce efficiently. Which leads to large numbers of progeny and descendants.

Without getting into a debate as to whether they are “really alive”, the most numerous species on the planet are bacteriophages. They are viruses which infect bacteria. They are very small, and relatively simple (although they are actually more complex and elegant than they seem at first).

The next most numerous are bacteria and archaea, which are comprised of single cells. These domains contain a range of species that can survive a very wide range of environments. Each individual species has its own needs, but, as general groups, bacteria and archaea can be found in many places that more complex life forms cannot.

Simplicity vs complexity relates to the amount of time and energy that is required for replicating yourself. A human being takes nine months, while bacteria have a theoretical minimum of 20 minutes (although, in reality, it tends to be somewhat longer, like maybe an hour, depending on conditions). The required energy and nutrients are vastly less per new bacterium.

Some species can evolve towards being more simple. If you are a microbe in an environment where certain needed molecules are plentiful, then you can lose the genes that code for enzymes to make those molecules yourself. Then, replicating yourself takes less time and resources, so you are now more efficient.

Microbes were around for a very long time before humans, and will continue long after we are gone.

Some multicellular organisms are also advantaged by relative simplicity. There are far, far more insects than there are mammals, for example. Also, their progeny are independent immediately, rather than needing years of parenting, sexual development, etc.